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Minimally invasive surgery robot

Chirurgia mininvasivaEndoscopyHeart valvemanipolatore roboticominimally invasive surgeryRobotic manipulatorrobotic medical platforms

Introduction

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the most popular method of heart valve implantation, which involves percutaneous entry, and carries the risk of damage to the artofemoral vessels. Alternatively, a sternotomy is performed, which involves numerous problems during the operation and in the post-operative phase, such as rejection, infections, pain and a prolonged hospital stay. The most recent approach is minimally invasive cardiac surgery such as thoracotomy, mini-sternotomy, with the most recent access via the transapical route. This approach is the introduction directly into the apex of the left ventricle, with the benefits of direct access to the valve, avoiding the complications of peripheral access. However, the use of the minimally invasive approach involves problems related to the robot’s ability to be correctly / conducted.

Technical features

Current known microsurgical robots have limits of precision and navigation. The minimally invasive robotic manipulator designed for the release of a polymeric heart valve equipped with a real-time vision and endoscopic navigation system, is the proposed solution that guarantees high maneuverability and eliminates the risk of tissue damage, in fact the extremity of insertion of the robotic arm is retractable, therefore during the navigation phase towards the insertion site the manipulator arm ensures that no pointed or angular part can damage the tissues. The large navigation capacity is then increased by the real-time endoscopic vision and navigation system and three video cameras that guarantees three-dimensional resolution. The dimensions of the manipulator arm developed so far are compatible with those of the blood vessels, moreover the technology could be implemented for extra vascular uses, wherever an endoscopic system, real time and with three-dimensional resolution, can guarantee greater functionality to the surgical medical staff.

Possible Applications

  • Percutaneous, transcatheter, thoracotomic and sternotomic valve implants.

Advantages

  • Endoscopic vision, search for nadir points and in maintaining the whole process in direct visual control;
  • Flexibility and controllability of the MIS manipulator and the search for the prefect release site;
  • Simplified surgical procedure with an automatic system capable of releasing the valve safely, effectively and quickly.